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20                 HISTORY OF PERSIA
of refusal they would be crushed. To Jews and Christians,
as possessing revealed scriptures, slightly better terms were
announced. They were, however, to be ^reduced to tribute
and humbled. This proclamation was followed up by the
despatch of embassies to every part of Arabia, the whole
of which, including even distant Oman, submitted to the
now all-powerful Prophet, and embraced Islam.
The "Farewell Pilgrimage" A.H, 10 (630).—The
venerable Prophet was sixty-three years of age and full
of honour when he made what is known as the cc Farewell
Pilgrimage." This set the seal on his success, and it is
impossible to follow him to it without sympathy and
appreciation of his achievements. His farewell to the
people of Mecca ends with the exclamation, <CO Lord ! I
have delivered my message and discharged my Ministry."
The Death of Mohamed, A.H. n (632)*—Shortly after
his return from Mecca, Mohamed was seized with fever,
and for some days suffered severely. One morning, as
Abu Bekr was leading the prayers, the congregation was
delighted by the appearance of the Prophet, who spoke to
the people after the service. But this was a last effort,
and the exhaustion it occasioned brought on his death,
His Character.—No impartial student surveying the
career and character of Mohamed can fail to acknowledge
his loftiness of purpose, his moral courage, his sincerity,
his simplicity, and his kindness. To these qualities must
be added unsparing energy and a genius for diplomacy,
Muir is well advised in distinguishing between the early
period of adversity and the later years in which success
and power were achieved; for it was almost inevitable
that as the Prophet became the ruler of Arabia the worldly
side of his character should develop at the expense of
the spiritual. Instances of cruelty and treachery are
undoubtedly proved against him ; but it is always to be
borne in mind that in judging this extraordinary man we
must apply not the standard of our own time, but that
of a period and of a world in which cruelty was rife,
Like Solomon, whom he resembled in character, he became
uxorious in his old age, and for this characteristic also the
same allowance must be made. It is certain that he never